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The most important primary Web resources for building up the timeline were the Internet Movie Database . Lemon . MobyGames . The International Arcade Museum . World of Spectrum . and Wikipedia. Initially, the search process started with evident keywords, such as “cowboy”, “revolver” and “West”, and proceeded when new related keywords popped up in the discoveries. When analyzing individual titles, we played them when realistically possible, otherwise falling back to video captures, reviews and screenshots. Finally, reoccurring observations concerning Western-themed representations, narratives and game mechanics were grouped together in order to assess their most common characteristics.
Western themes were codified, ubiquitous, and well-known by the time electronic entertainment hit the market. Even the earliest novelty games introduced horse racing, hunting and gunfights. (Kent 2001,10.) In part, the mechanical arcade games also continued a tradition already present in the old West: roulette, wheel of fortune, and the “one-armed bandit” all involved mechanisms of sorts. Among war, sports, and exotic themes, the West provided a convenient setting for later arcade game cabinets. Luck-based games relate to the fickle fortunes at the settler trails, saloon games, and the gold fields, while shooting games and rodeo machines are more rooted in the skills supposedly required at the frontier. Before video games, the simple mechanical and early electronic games could not directly replicate film and book narratives, but rather relied on the popularity of the theme and provided action experiences reminiscent of those seen on the screen.
Here we have confined ourselves to video games that deliver an impression of a Western setting, whether ostentatiously historical or referring to a more constructed, fictional American frontier. Our emphasis is on the emergence and expansion of the video game medium in the 1970s and the 1980s. The study was preceded by an extensive viewing of Western movies, with the intent to sensitize us to the presence of stereotypical Western representations and plot devices in video games.
Apperley, Thomas. 2006. “Genre and Game Studies: Toward a Critical Approach to Video Game Genres.” Simulation & Gaming 37(1): 6–23.
Wolf, Mark J. P. 2007. The Video Game Explosion: A History from Pong to Playstation and Beyond. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
If the earlier games merely derived from a collective distillation of the Western theme and stereotypes, it is now possible to ask: What has the game medium added to the Western mythos? With video games, the question “What was it like in the West?”, at least implicit in many films, could now be delivered in first-person where a player’s actions have repercussions in the simulated game world. The player can now explore what-if scenarios first hand and even behave in ways unfit for a cinematic Western hero, returning to the straight and narrow via a saved position (Buel 2013). The player is faced with a choice of narrative, action and detailed management of equipment (Figure 13) not explicitly present in a Western film. Special equipment in films is almost inevitably plot- or character-defining, whereas in action and simulation games items are brought in play within the game rules. The player places his or her customized character inside complex gunfight and horse-riding sequences, which are played on a detailed Western terrain. The duel, target and riding elements that previously constituted a full game by themselves, are now only elements of a larger whole, suggestive of a complete Western ecosystem.
In addition to movie name references, recognizable characters and scenarios have been used in games as well. The black-vested and white-shirted Kane (1986) seems to invoke the famous Gary Cooper figure from the film High Noon (1952), and Spaghetti Western Simulator (1990) brings out a hero called “Clint Westbound”. Sometimes the films are referenced directly: in Six-Gun Shootout (1985), historical and fictional gunfights could be re-enacted as tactical wargame scenarios, which include the famous gunfight at O.K. Corrall jack hammer slot 3 augs, the Jesse James raid at Northfield, and film settings from The Good, Bad and the Ugly (1966) and Rio Bravo (1959) (see Figure 10). Film references in games suggest how the Western theme in video games can rely on a complex external narrative (Juul 2001), not necessarily supplied with the game at all. An understanding of the Western genre and its conventions supports the often rudimentary actual game play experience.
Although Western films have frequently been described as political (Frayling 1981; McGee 2007), such themes have been approached warily in video game design. Apart from some isolated examples, social aspects of the frontier have not been utilized in video games. For example, the railroad provides a milieu and action setting for games (Figure 12), but that is the extent of its presence. This can be compared to the nuanced role railroad plays in the film Once upon a Time in the West (1968) (for further analysis, see Frayling 1981, 195). War games and simulations about railroad construction might even be more suggestive in this respect, as the player can explore and become invested through actual gameplay to the contingencies of military conquest and the logic of industrial expansion respectively.
Our view of Western video games arises from a media theoretical standpoint. We use the concept of remediation (Bolter and Grusin 2000) as a starting point to bring into focus the historical coming to being of the Western in the video game medium. The concept of remediation is well applicable here, as we are dealing with multiple transformations from older forms of media into the digital domain. Films are likely to be the most important source for Western video game visuals and narratives, and cinema has served as our main frame of reference in understanding what constitutes a Western in the first place. In light of the theory of remediation, the production of Western films is a complex webwork of studio practices, with Western literature as an important precedent: many films are in turn based on books and short stories. Just as the transfer from literature to film needs to repurpose the source material, the reworking of Western themes to the video game medium required a reinvention peculiar to that environment. We examine video games for their own take on the Western themes, observing the presence and absence of common topics seen in films.
Figure 9. Western comic books interpreted on the computer screen: North and South and Blueberry.
Clearwater, David. 2011. “What Defines Video Game Genre? Thinking about Genre Study after the Great Divide.” Journal of the Canadian Game Studies Association 5(8): 29–49.
Saarikoski, Petri. 2004. “Villi länsi tietokonepeleissä: huonot, keskinkertaiset ja unohtuneet (Wild West in Video Games: The Bad, the Average and the Forgotten).” Ruudinsavu 2/2004: 17–20.
Figure 4. Compared to contemporary action games, text adventures could offer detailed historical narratives and varied situations. Gold Rush! (1988) and Legend of the Apache Gold (1986).
Dickerman, Charles, Jeff Christensen, and Stella Beatríz Kerl-McClain. 2008. “Big Breasts and Bad Guys: Depictions of Gender and Race in Video Games.” Journal of Creativity in Mental Health 3(1): 20–29.
A Western game can usually be recognized through the chosen esthetic and standard paraphernalia (Figure 2). Therefore, we could also claim that we are talking about a general theme instead of an actual video game genre, as in many cases the only similarity can be found on the Western icing that has been poured over a set of otherwise unrelated titles. On the other hand, the Wild West setting does imply a set of mechanics that clearly favor certain types of games and, in general, tone the outcome. For example, gunfights, outlaws, and horseback riding are so internalized and productized that it is hard to imagine a Wild West themed game that would not use at least one of them as their building block. To conclude the genre discussion here, we propose that Western games could be called a thematic genre. orthogonal to and overlapping with gameplay-based genres (cf. Junnila 2007, 35).
Figure 2. The West as scene- and mood setting material. Law of the West and Gunfright.
Comparing Western video games to cinema reveals certain similarities and differences. Despite some marginal exceptions, Western games did not grow to form a “classical” mainstream and a subversion of that mainstream, as arguably happened with the films. In our examination, we found that the duel and target games fell out of fashion as the sophistication of platforms increased. Early target games clearly evolved in competition or imitation with previous machines, much as fighting games blackjack card values, driving games, and first-person shooters have grown to become well-formed (non-thematic) video game genres. On the whole, there is little evidence of Western-themed video games critically reflecting on their predecessors, even if in most cases they have been obvious clones and follow-ups to previous titles. Novelty and innovation have tended to originate either from other media or another game genre. This could be changing as major releases (e.g. Red Dead Redemption ) have set new milestones to which later games will, undoubtedly, be compared.
Sicart, Miguel. 2013. “Moral Dilemmas in Computer Games.” Design Issues 29(3): 28–37.
Neale, Steve. 2003. “Hollywood Blockbusters: Historical Dimensions” In Movie Blockbusters. edited by Julian Stringer, 47–60. London: Routledge
The West strongly implies a cast of characters peculiar to the setting, and the question arises how the player and the characters came to be represented in a digital medium. Arcade cabinet visuals and early console game cartridges were bolstered with printed images of cowboys and gunfights, which was also largely the case with the preceding mechanical games. The earliest video games could only depict characters as stick figures with rudimentary cowboy hats and revolvers, in dire contrast to films with their colorful cast of actors. An immediate problem in recreating a Western feel in a digital format was that early visuals needed to be very repetitive due to hardware limits, whereas Western films tend to delight on the raggedness and detail of the era. To illustrate this point ilmaista pelirahaa casino getaways, Civil War uniforms in games are usually identical, whereas in films and in reality the clothing was much more disparate and mismatched (Mollo 1983).
Neale, Steve. 1990. “Questions of Genre.” Screen: The Journal of the Society for Education in Film and Television 31(1): 45–66.
We expected the Western thematic to be an easily contained, marginal theme within video games. Even if true in the face of the total volume of published games, the amount of Western games was, nevertheless, surprising. In addition, there are numerous electromechanical mobiili kasino bonus 6 table game, mechanical and pinball machines that we did not even seek to catalog extensively. While compiling the list, we also built a typology of Western games ranging from target shooters to role-playing games. Despite the initial assumptions, the Western theme is not confined to a particular era or country of origin. Our study did not reveal any striking differences between games originating from different countries, except that Civil War games are first and foremost an American phenomenon. Another national tendency is that Japanese game companies started fusing Western together with other themes earlier than elsewhere.
Early Western video games owed much to their mechanical predecessors, as both the game content and the pictorial embellishments were part of a continued tradition. Physical machines were remediated for the new computer chip and video screen based media, whereas arcade cabinets and video game box covers featured similar film-influenced imagery. Crude two-color displays required game designers to condense the Western thematic to an unprecedented minimum. As video game platforms grew in complexity and capacity during the 1980s, it became possible to offer more advanced themes than mere shooting. The variety of Western games began to expand, and the game mechanics settle into subgenres of their own.
The discussion on genre is well-developed in cinema studies, leading to an understanding that a genre is not simply a means of categorization for a particular medium but a system of audience expectations, recognition, and understanding (Neale, 1990). In video games studies, there has been a certain reluctance to compare the video game to earlier media, aligning game genres along the ludological rather than narrative or thematic axis (Clearwater 2011). Apperley (2006) is particularly critical of seeing genre as a simple remediation of visual representations from other media, suggesting a move toward an understanding of genre based on differences of interactivity. This would mean privileging player activity as the defining aspect of a genre, whereas the theme or milieu might even be seen as superficial and uninteresting for analysis. Setting aside the debate on the importance of narrative and gameplay, more in line with the earlier genre theorists Clearwater calls for an understanding of a genre as a conceptual tool for positioning a set of works in a broader social context and industrial production. (Clearwater 2011.) Furthermore online casino atlantic city, in the age of increasingly online video game commerce, a “genre” can also be considered a tag or a keyword with direct economic consequences, as customers search among a multitude of similar products to find games of their liking (Kemppainen 2012).
As video game consoles and home computers began to proliferate, interactive electronic Western entertainment entered homes as well. Target shooting was brought to television screens with the second generation of Pong machines online casino suomi saksa, albeit usually without a specific Western theme. Already Ralph H. Baer’s pioneering Brown Box prototype from 1968 – later developed into Magnavox Odyssey – featured a Winchester-like rifle for target shooting (Baer 2005, 55). Coleco’s Telstar line of TV games from 1977, such as the Ranger and Arcade variants, featured quick draw games and light gun revolvers in the Western style (ibid. 142). The earliest home computer games were mostly imitations of earlier arcade games, especially the Gun Fight duel format was indiscriminately copied as small company knock-offs and type-in listings in hobbyist magazines and computer game books.
Bazin, André. 1971. What is Cinema? Vol. II. Oakland, CA: University of California.
At first sight, studying film licenses might appear as an effective route to examining the remediation of the Western subject matter in video games. However, likely due to the general failure of the Western film at the box office in the early 1980s and onwards (McGee 2007, 235), Western film licenses from early video game era are virtually non-existent, and have remained scarce thereafter. Furthermore, the early generations of machines were not very conducive for creating Western worlds. Especially the widespread Atari 2600 platform was notoriously poor for recreating film visuals (Montfort and Bogost 2009, 119–120; Aldred 2012). Later, only a few films, such as Dances with Wolves (1990), have made the blockbuster status in the New Hollywood era (Neale 2003, 52–53), but possibly as a more serious work it was not accompanied with associated video game merchandise.
Figure 6. “Wanted” posters provide opportunities for closer characterization and mood setting. A poster is used in the attract mode of Wanted (1984), whereas in Wild Bunch (1984) the poster has been integrated as part of the gameplay.
Higham, John. 1977. Strangers in the Land. Patterns of American Nativism 1860-1925. New York: Atheneum.
Comic book frames, maps, windows ilmainen casino bonus for 3 23 2015, and minigames could be readily utilized on the early interactive platforms where animation and video playback were still limited (see Figure 9). This also meant the actions would be partly narrated instead of involving the player as a more active participant. Apart from licenses and attempts to interpret the medium on the screen, older games have a certain affinity with comic books with their streamlined visuals, switching between static screens and combinations of text and pictures. In contrast to action games, these approaches enable different storytelling devices and detail to the historical scenarios.
Arthur, Paul. 2003. “How the West Was Spun: McCabe & Mrs. Miller and Genre Revisionism.” Cineaste 28(3): 18–20.
In these early games, a most minimal cast of characters would include the (sheriff) hero and an army of generic hoodlum villains, sometimes Indians. As the example of Gunfright and Law of the West demonstrates, the 1980s computer game could already expand the scope of characters and even suggest their appropriate role in a Western setting, made apparent through the gameplay itself (see Figure 7). The duel and target shooting gameplay elements had at the same time become higher-tension sections rather than main content. Today’s content-heavy games, such as Red Dead Revolver (2004), Helldorado (2007) or Six Guns (2012) can practically refer to every possible – racially inspired – character stereotype and the associated plotlines (Figure 8).
In this study, we examine a number of video games throughout the period ranging from the 1970s to today, building a timeline of game releases. The list comprises 383 titles, of which 315 are computer and video games (see Appendix). Most of them have been published commercially. The games originate from all over the world – most notably the US, UK, and Japan – so they also provide for comparisons between national differences, if any. The timeline was augmented with a small number of pinball [ii]. target shooting and reaction cabinets in order to contextualize the development of digital games.
Figure 11. In early games, horseback riding was seen almost exclusively within a Western theme. Outlaws and Express Raider.
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